Normalizing a dataframe means scaling all the values in the dataframe so that they fall within a specified range. The goal of normalization is to bring all the columns in a dataset to a common scale to avoid bias towards any particular feature.

When you normalize all columns in a dataframe, you transform each value in the dataframe so that it falls between `0 and 1`

or between `-1 and 1`

. This is usually done by subtracting the minimum value from each value in the column and then dividing by the range of the column. Here are three methods to normalize all columns in a DataFrame using pandas:

#### 1. Using "MinMaxScaler":

- Import the
`MinMaxScaler`

class from the`sklearn.preprocessing`

module. -
`MinMaxScaler`

scales the values in each column to a range between`0`

and`1`

, based on the minimum and maximum values in each column. - Create an instance of the
`MinMaxScaler`

class. - Use the fit_transform method of the
`MinMaxScaler`

object to transform the DataFrame. - Create a new DataFrame from the normalized values.

##### Example:

#### 2. Using "apply()" and "lambda()" functions:

- Import the necessary libraries.
- Load the DataFrame you want to normalize.
- Define a lambda function that applies the normalization formula to each column.
- Apply the lambda function to each column using the
`apply()`

method. - The resulting DataFrame will have all columns normalized between
`0`

and`1`

.

##### Example:

**Note:** Using `apply()`

and `lambda()`

functions to normalize a DataFrame is a bit slower than using built-in normalization methods like `MinMaxScaler`

. However, it can be useful when you need to apply a custom normalization formula that is not available in other methods.

#### 3. Using "div" and "max":

- Import the necessary libraries.
- Load the DataFrame you want to normalize.
- Divide each column by its maximum value using the
`div()`

method. - The resulting DataFrame will have all columns normalized between
`0`

and`1`

.

##### Example:

**Note:** This method divides each value in a column by the maximum value in that column. It is a quick and easy way to normalize a DataFrame but it may not be appropriate for all types of data.