How can I change column types in Pandas easily and efficiently?

Hello everyone, I am working on a dataset and I ran into a problem of data types, here is a view of its first few rows:

Country Population Capital Date of Independence GDP per Capita ($)
USA 331,002,651 Washington, D.C. July 4, 1776 63,416
China 1,439,323,776 Beijing October 1, 1949 10,262
Brazil 212,559,417 Brasília September 7, 1822 8,687
Australia 25,499,884 Canberra January 1, 1901 55,714
France 65,273,511 Paris July 14, 1789 44,550

Now, as you can see, there are different columns and some are numeric, some are non-numerical and I also have a column of dates. All these columns are loaded as object when I read the CSV file and I want to change the types of the columns to their correct types. Please provide me with different efficient methods of doing this, use example codes if possible as they help me understand better.